Halons are man-made compounds, which have been mainly used as fire retardants. Because they contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, their usage is now greatly restricted under the Montreal Protocol.
The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994; however, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed. Analysis suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe.
In two recent studies, lead by Empa, unexpected atmospheric trend reversals were found for the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) HCFC-31 (CH2ClF) and HCFC-133a (CF3CH2Cl).
We report multiyear atmospheric measurements of halocarbons from the high altitude observatory at Jungfraujoch and from urban Dubendorf (Switzerland). Analysis indicates significant emissions from source locations outside the footprints of the two stations.
Modern inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application. From urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of several anesthetics in the global atmosphere.
Trifluoromethane (CHF3, HFC-23), with a 100-year global warming potential (GWP) of 12400, is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol.